Industrialization involves economic and social changes that take place in the society from an agrarian community to a mechanized community. The current Chinese industrialization and the late 19th century American industrialization included the changes in mining, transportation, technology, manufacturing, and agriculture that have had a profound impact on the economic, cultural, and social circumstances of the era.
COMPARISON OF INDUSTRIALIZATION IN LATE 19TH CENTURY AMERICA TO CHINA CURRENT INDUSTRIALIZATION
The late 19th century American industrialization and the current Chinese production are characterized by the development from home and hand production to machine production of goods. Industrialization has introduced several changes in the agriculture sector, the system and method of production of goods, and their transportation. Mechanization of production is a significant characteristic of the Chinese and the American industrialization. Animal and manual power was replaced by steam and water power. Industrialization also led to changes in the scheme of production. Before industrialization, production was scattered with people manufacturing products in houses with the use of personal equipments. This was replaced by the factory system, whereby production was done at the factory. Due to surplus of the production there has been development of rail, shipping and road sectors for effective shipping of products.
The overall downfall in cultural and socio-economic situation of people is another common aspect of the Chinese and the American industrialization. A lot of people argue that expansion and growth of the urban centers is a key outcome of industrialization. Several people have been driven to cities in search for work, this lead to the emergence of congestion, poverty and poor living conditions in the cities. With the novel industrial age, a novel materialistic and quantitative view of the world by both the Chinese and American people has taken place. The success of the 19th century American industrialization depended on immigration and general poverty of people, and industrialization grew as a result of cheap labor and a big number of workers. On the contrary, the Chinese industrialization relies on the skilled labor force, particularly internal labor force. China is leading in several fields of industry and technology, and is expected to become a developed country in the near future.
HOW INDUSTRIALIZATION HAS IMPACTED WORKERS IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH, AND SOCIAL INEQUALITY
The late 19th century American industrialization and the current Chinese industrialization has led to social and economic changes due to the shift in the use of hand tools to use of power tools, as well as the shift from production of goods in small scale to production in large scale. Before industrialization, goods were crafted by hand or by simple machines in homes, small factories and shops. The change to manufacturing of products in factories has caused individuals to move from rural to urban areas, ultimately leading to polluted and overcrowded cities. In the USA, a steady flow of immigrants supplied work force for industries that emerged in major cities, with factory owners employing women, children and men for the lowest wages.
The rapid growth and development of industry has led to widespread social and economic problems, which have made several people work and live in unsanitary and unsafe conditions, because of the fear of starvation due to the possible job loss. Urbanization has also led to a widening of a gap between the rich and poor workers, with the poor living in slums, due to low wages earned from working in the industries. However, the social shifts that have taken place due to the industrialization are not all negative. Almost all classes have eventually gained from huge profits being made in industries, and workers were paid better wages. The widespread technology along with steady threat of starvation has lessened the overall material and health conditions of the population. In response, workers have formed trade unions and lobbied for better wages and working conditions.
It is worth noting that although industrialization in America and China took place at different times, they were characterized by the same mechanization of goods production, production of goods in industries and improvements in the transport and shipping systems. The social and economic effects of industrialization are similar both in China and America. Due to the establishment of factories, several people have moved to urban centers in an attempt to offer their services, which has, in turn, led to over congestion and poor living conditions within the environment.