Politics and Culture in the Developing World is a comprehensive survey of that focuses on the global context of development. The book provides insight into topics such as decolonization, democratization, religion, and gender by reflecting on examples from countries such as Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America. The authors examine political themes that are witnessed in the developing world . Additionally, they also demonstrate the influence of globalization in accelerating change and increasing the interdependence of developed and undeveloped countries throughout the context.
Chapter one of the book focuses on Politics, Government and Cultures that exist in Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America. The authors seek to establish how individuals interact in an organized social setting. They establish that the interactions in an organized setting are influenced by politics. The book reflects on human beings as social beings who are interdependent on each other. As a result, the societies reflected on in the chapter are organized through a combination of various factors such as work and religion that play an essential role in influencing socialization. However, the pattern witnessed in the human societies differs significantly from one place to another. The societies are also found to differ from one era to another across the various cultures that are featured making it a complex and dynamic environment.
The form of government and politics that are practiced in Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America differ significantly. In most governments featured in the book, governments are elected. On the other hand, there are scenarios where the government is created by the armed forces. Politics in the countries differs significantly based on the form of government applied. However, the nations focused on in the chapter have a government in place and constitution regardless of its stability. Consequently, the politics of the countries play a major role in influencing their economy. As a result, the countries have differing economic status. Al human societies as reflected in the book are subjected to conflict. Conflict in most countries is influenced by politics and the form of government. Additionally, conflict is also found to arise from the competition of power and resources. Social change is found as a major factor that attributes to conflict. Moreover, the social system of a nation plays an essential role in influencing their economic and social system equality.
Chapter 2 of the book focuses on Global Interdependence. In this case, the authors analyze financial crisis and reflect on earlier days and the decisions that were made by the rulers. Additionally, the authors also focus on the forces of globalization and its effects on the world today. According to the text, the relationship between countries across the globe enhanced significantly after World War II. The enhanced relationship was attributed to by globalization. In the case, globalization had connected different parts of the globe by bringing them closer together. Moreover, it manifested itself in imperialism. Globalization is found to have had immense effects on the world today by enhancing global interdependence. Global Interdependence is defined as the mutual reliance of nations at a global level. Therefore, one country relies on another for something that they may depend on another country leading to interdependence. The process is achieved through the importation and exportation of goods and services.
Global interdependence is evident through social, cultural and economic factors that influence the wellbeing of a nation. Globalization affects the world today based on the fact that is responsible for modernity. In this case, modernity is reflected through the interdependence of nations that enables them to create relationships among one another. Additionally, globalization has attributed to a significant reduction in the probability of war and military conflict due to the influence of international relations . According to the text, it is evident that globalization played an essential role in putting an end to the Cold War. Global interdependence has led to a growing global consciousness through the creation of a platform that facilitates for cultural interpretation. As a result, it unites the world rather than dividing it.
Chapter 3 of the book analyzes religion and politics. The chapter focuses on religion as a globalizing force in history. Evidently, the authors play an essential role in focusing on religion across the globe and its contribution to values and culture. Religion is viewed from different perspectives of peace and violence. The authors reflect on the movement of people across the globe leading to the establishment of religions and cultures. The establishment of different cultures and religions across the globe enhanced globalization since it created aspects that different people across the globe could relate to. Such developments led to the resurgence of religious cults such as the KKK and AlQaeda groups that are known to use religion for the purpose of conflict. On the other hand, it is evident that religious groups such as Christianity and Islam have been used to emphasize on the need for peace and tranquility across the globe. The book reflects on the powers of the Pope and the influence he has on global interdependence.
Globalization from a Christian perspective is aimed at raising millions of people across the globe who are poor. The practice has been active for many centuries. However, it is evident that there are populations across the globe who have not been reached by globalization. Religion has enhanced globalizations by dealing with issues associated with inequality. It ensures that it draws more people into the beliefs as more people are brought into the industrialized and urbanizing economies. Christianity is found to have grown to become a globalization pattern of life. In this case, people are connected through their cross-cultural bases and at the same time preserving their own values. Evidently, religion has grown significantly since the end of World War II.
Chapter 4 of the book focuses on nationalism, colonialism and independence. The authors reflect on the creation of empires and the establishment of colonization. They also focus on the effects of colonization on globalization.
Chapter 5 of the book Politics and Culture in the Developing World reflects on global and domestic inequalities. The authors conduct a successful study that enables them to assess the economic inequality that exists in both rich and poor countries. Additionally, the authors also assess the contributing factors of equality and inequality within countries.
The book plays an essential role in offering a comprehensive introduction in relation to the effects of globalization. In this case, the book is successful in reflecting on the fates of developing and developed nations and establishing how they are intertwined. The chapters offer comprehensive information that reflects on recent world events. Nassar and Payne draw information from their extensive professional experiences to offer the reader an engaging, and lucid introduction to the cultures and politics of Asia, Middle East, Africa and Latin America . The book successfully achieves its aims through its organization around the theme of globalization on particular topics that are covered in the chapters. The approach taken in the structuring of the book plays an essential role in providing the reader with a broader context that enables them to examine some of the issues that are experienced in developing countries. The book also reflects on both industrialized nations and developing countries without isolation to reflect on interdependence.
The transatlantic slave trade is considered as one of the major processes of the European global colonizations. During this time, there was major competition between European countries in regards to power, trade and profit that ultimately led to their conquest of new lands. According to the text, it is evident that the nations build their empires through conquering lands and establishing trade routes that would suite them. The major players in colonialism such as Britain established trade links with the aim of growing their empires in terms of profit and power.
According to the text, colonization played a major role in influencing globalization. In this case, colonization attributed to the introduction of services that have proven to be essential in this day and age. It led to the establishment of health care and education with the aim of improving the standard of life. It influenced globalization economically through the foreign trade and treaties that enhanced tariffs leading to ease of access to foreign markets. Colonization also led to the establishment of industrialization that created job opportunities for the locals. As a result, it led to new development opportunities in foreign countries. Colonization led to the formation of government systems that are applied till date. It created a system that was aimed at ensuring order and ensuring that the countries develop through trade activities. The systems of law gave specific people such as chiefs who were appointed the power to ensure order in the society. Colonization also enhanced globalization through the establishment of schemes that were aimed at benefiting the countries economies. The schemes were created based on the regions natural resources. Furthermore, they enhanced trade activities between the countries.
Chapter 5 of the book Politics and Culture in the Developing World reflects on global and domestic inequalities. In this chapter, the author concentrates on providing information regarding the imbalance that exists in the world economies. According to the authors, domestic economies depend on global economies. In their analysis, they realize that poor countries need global trade organizations for purposes of ensuring development in the countries. They indicate that trade among countries is the key to bridge the existing gap and imbalance that exits in the global economies. As a result, they suggest that the answer to this problem involves engaging in international relations . Payne and Jamal insist that proper foreign policy of a country will help in determining its trade endeavors with other countries in the region. On this note, they suggest that the greatest obstacle to global trade is poor foreign policies that causes conflict between nations. The authors agree that political tension is key in determining the economic balance in domestic economies. It also influences the economic balance in global giant economies such as America. In this regard, they indicate that the strength of global economies depend of the good performance of the other economies in the world. In their submission, they understand no country has the capacity to stand alone economically.
As a result, international trade becomes vital in ensuring economic balance in the world. At this point, they also point out that global economies may suffer from overreliance from other economies due to the imbalance of economies in the world. Consequently, they suggest that giant economies should participate in helping domestic economies in poor countries to excel economically. The authors conduct a successful study that enables them to assess the economic inequality that exists in both rich and poor countries. In their study they realize that there are more poor countries across the world that the rich ones. Most of the poor countries are found in Africa while the rich ones are in the Western nations.
In their submission, they realize that there are critical issues that affect poor countries leading to their dismal economies. Firstly, they mention poor governance as a major problem that affects the poor countries. According to them, the poor countries elect wrong leaders whose economic policies fail to yield the expected outcomes for the country. Secondly, they indicate that corruption is a major menace in most poor countries. In this regard, they say that corruption affects the economic development since most leaders engage in the public theft of public property. There is redirection of funds meant for development. As a result, there is continued underdevelopment in these nations. They also mention poor fiscal policies. Most poor countries have poor projections that lead them into excessive foreign debt. These factors affect their economic development initiatives. Additionally, the authors also assess the contributing factors of equality and inequality within countries.