Introduction

Pollution is the addition of impurities to a clean environment. This aspect arises when negative effects arise from the activities of man in the society in any region or part of the world. In essence, it can be a personal or industrial activity that may push for such impurities to be emitted in the environment. For the purpose of this study, we shall look at the three types of countries across the world namely underdeveloped, developing and developed. From the three sets of countries, the issue of pollution seems to be affecting the underdeveloped countries mostly as they have fewer means and apparatus to counter the adversative effects of their activities that facilitate environmental pollution. The other two types of countries have set up institutions that fight the challenges that come with pollution and in other forms tackle the problem at the source rather than waiting for the problem to cause the effects that would be expensive to cure. We will be discussing the types and agents of pollution, the effects of pollution and the curative measures put in place to handle the problems of pollution on the environment.

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Types and Agents of pollution

Pollution can be classified into three major sets that involve soil, air, and water. The three specify a wide range of pollution that affects the environment and ending up causing unsafe effects on man and his surroundings. Each of the areas affects is either interrelated in the manner through which they are affected or have single pollution agents that cause danger to them individually. For instance, soil pollution is affected by pollutants caused by air and water and are the two others. Soil pollution is caused by agents like oil spillage, poor sanitation, chemicals from industries and unauthorized mining activities. As such the soil and, in this case, land is affected negatively thereby posing a threat to the environment. Soil pollution leads to other forms of environmental dangers like the migration of animal and man population that would exact pressure in a new place. Desertification is also a common problem that is associated with soil pollution, and this would lead to degradation of vegetation and changes in weather and climate patterns. Such adverse effects have a negative impact on man and his surroundings as he would be forced to change the natural way of occurrence of events in the environments. Air pollution, on the other hand, involves interfering with the natural composition of air at any given time by man. Naturally, air has its composition that supports life and the environment on the global scene. Air pollution takes the notion of interfering with such percentages in specific air compositions. Agents of air pollution like biomass fuels, motor vehicles emissions, industrial emissions and agricultural chemicals have majorly affected the air composition. The agents in this class of pollution affect the three classes of countries across the world as they all engage in the activities that lead to agents of air pollution. For instance, the developed world has huge industries that emit air pollutants to the environment, and that causes air pollution. The developing world is engaging in large-scale agricultural farming and end up using chemical sprays that cause air pollution. The same can be witnessed for an underdeveloped world that have weaker policies on air pollution and thus end up being victims of most of the agents of air pollution. Water pollution is a product of both soil and air pollution. Most of the pollutant agents that affect the first two end up in water and that creates an imbalance in the water composition. Agents of water pollution have first affected water or air. For example, oil spillage and gas emissions have diverse effects on all the three types of pollution. Water would be the most affected as they all end up being dumped in the water bodies like rivers, lakes, seas and oceans.

Effects of Pollution

Pollution has diverse effects on and his environment. The effects in most cases are negative as they affect how man operates within his surroundings. From the three types of pollution, that is, air, water, and soil, man is also affected independently or interdependently from the same. In essence, the effects can be a health-related or environmental concern. Health wise, man is affected directly by exposure to pollutants in the environment. Let us take the example of a farmer who uses chemicals to kill weeds, pests, and insects from his farm. Such a farmer will have respiratory or eye problems if he does not shield himself from exposure to such chemicals. Further, an area that is near a lead or mercury company that has poor disposal programs, the residents would suffer from lead or mercury-related health complications in the long run. Environmental effects as seen from the above depend on the extensive of a given agent in water, soil or air. Desertification and climate change most occurs due to changes in vegetation that is affected by agents on soil and air. For water, it leads to migration of a population of a given organism or even extinction of certain generations of species as the composition of their environment has changed, and they cannot withstand the change.

Curative Measures on Pollution

Several measures have been set either locally or internationally to solve the effects that are caused by pollution. From a national approach, the fight against pollution started in the year 1970 when the Clean Air Act was assented to by the then President, Nixon to inaugurate the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Such a body was mandated to regulate hazard pollutants from reaching the environment. The authority was later given more powers during the Bush administration when it was mandated with the responsibility of tackling ozone depletion. The body has ensured a reduction in harmful substances are regulated like lead, mercury, Sulphur and other toxic emissions from the time it was established to date. At an international level, we see the establishment of the 1985 Vienna Convention and the 1987 Montreal Protocol that intended to curb the big problem of environmental pollution that was affecting the world about the sustainability of man and his surroundings. The two ensured that states adhere to the precautionary approach ideology while handling any material that pose hazardous conditions tot eh environment. Both the international and national policies would ensure that pollution as an adverse effect on man’s health and survival is curbed through various measures that are established or are on the verge of being implemented.

Conclusion

In conclusion, pollution as a physical science concern had adverse effects on man and his environment. The types of pollution would affect man differently depending on the magnitude of pollutants involved. For example, a lead emission from an industry would have more respiratory effects as compared to a biofuel emission from domestic use. As such the effect on the environment would also vary depending on the manner of disposal of pollutants. The man has the responsibility to ensure that measures are set to safeguard his survival, and that of other organisms as their symbiosis relationship is very important for each other survival of future generations. Further, the measures set must be updated from time to time as more emissions mutate towards polluting the environment.

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Dec 19, 2019 in Informative
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