The diversity of psychological journals focuses on the peculiarities of a child’s development along with its behavioral patterns. The current research is a reflection of one of the most respectable sources of information. It helps to acquaint a reader with the basics of human development from infancy to preschool years. It is remarkable to note that each piece of information fills the gaps of another one and leads to a comprehensive understanding of the developmental aspects of the mentioned period.

First, there is a need to point at the behavioral problems of human development lasting from infancy to preschool years. This period is a complicated one as long as it sets the basics of human behavior at other life stages. Frances Gardner and Daniel Shaw have dedicated their work to the evaluation of behavioral problems of infancy and preschool children. The work is a reflection of diversity of problems having both the clinical and emotional character. However, all issues of the early development have their effect on the behavioral patterns. The article starts from mentioning clinical problems as the major evidence proving that there might be some deviations from the balanced behavior of a child. For example, children tend to face oppositional and attentional issues as soon as they come into a stage of rapid development. Disruptive behavior is one of the common stages in the behavioral development of every kid. For example, the article provides with the common situations, when children act aggressively during their communication with other kids. Aggression reveals itself when the little ones try to take toys away, push others or even attack them physically. Oppositional problems also have an aggressive character. However, these ones tend to include annoyance, non-compliance, anger, and defiant behavior. Emotional issues include anxiety in the majority of cases. The article also mentions that depression and post-traumatic stress may also take place in the development of preschoolers. However, such peculiarities tend to appear because of trauma, accident or any other event, which had a negative influence on the emotional background of a child. Eating and feeding problems are other characteristic features of infancy and preschool years. Such deviations from the normal behavior tend to take their place due to emotional misbalance. For example, refusal from food in preschool years means that a child behaves within emotional imbalance. It also shows that parents need to pay more attention to their kid and learn the aspects of offspring management in order to have an improved feeding. In general, the article is appropriate for the examination of basic facts regarding the child’s behavior and development. The authors have contributed much time to the inclusion of reliable resources filling the informational tone of the research. 

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Further, there is a need to continue the examination of early childhood development. Encyclopedia of early childhood development provides its audience with a remarkable article written by Janet Astington and Margaret Edward. The authors represent the importance of paying attention to the theory of mind. It is an important element in the development of social cognition. The theory of mind is an aspect of human development, which helps each person to be an individual with specific needs, desires, feelings, and motives. The article proves that the theory starts its influence on human development in early childhood. In addition, it is the most valuable element in interactions of kids with other individuals. The author has found out that both external and internal factors influence on the ability to socialize through the lens of the theory of mind. For example, children reveal their mental awareness if parents talk about their feelings and needs. It is an external factor, which helps a child to learn how to think and express personal desires. Internal factors of theory of mind include language and cognitive abilities. Cognitive abilities, in their turn, help a child to regulate behavior. However, the earliest stages of child development can hardly have a characteristic of the emotional control. The theory of mind has a direct connection to the success and achievements at school. It determines the level of socialization. The article proves that kids who have a developed mind tend to accommodate to the environment of learning and continue their evolution in a scientific way. 

The preschool development is a necessary stage in growing of every child. A motor activity is another element characterizing the little one’s development before school years. Fotini Venetsanou and Antonis Kambas have dedicated their research to the environmental factors, which set the tone of the development of each preschooler. The authors point at the following environmental factors: family social status, mother, and siblings. Family has the first place in the level of influence as long as it sets the tone of the kid’s reaction to the world. The results of studies indicate that children tend to have an improved psychomotor development in case if their mother has a respectable educational level. In particular, the family’s social class has a connection to the little one’s ability to behave, according to the social norms. Inappropriate conditions in the family prevent a child from the effective performance. Moreover, it affects the upbringing methods of the kid. Mother is a source of reliability for a child. If she does not pay enough attention to her kid, it is most likely that there will be negative consequences in the psychomotor activity. The article proves that the mother starts a direct influence on the  development at the age of 2. Siblings, in their turn, also have an effect on infants and preschoolers. For example, younger children tend to replicate the actions of their elder sisters and brothers as long as they spend much time observing every process. All these facts have pushed the authors to the conclusion that children tend to formulate their motoric function during a period of infancy. This term has many factors creating an environment of the child’s development. 

Moreover, the review flows to the article written by Dickinson, Griffith, Golinkoff, and Hirsh-Pasek. The article reflects the results of examination of reading books and the influence on the language development around the world. In particular, the authors claim that reading emerges from the language ability. It takes its place early in life and has a direct influence on the academic success in the future. However, all the premises of educational success and language usage start from the earliest stages of life. It is a well-known fact among parents that a period from infancy to school years is accompanied by a rapid involvement of a kid in the socialization. Moreover, children tend to enrich their vocabulary and improve their speech by pronouncing words in a proper way. The article mentions that vocabulary and grammar are learnt together. It means that there is a need to provide children with opportunities to learn new words as soon as possible. Otherwise, it will be difficult for a kid to accommodate at school. This entire phenomenon takes place in case if parents spend much time learning letters and reading short stories with their kids. If a child is lucky to learn the language as early as possible, there is no doubt that there is a guarantee for further success. In addition, children tend to learn new words faster if parents help to learn the language. In general, the authors successfully prove that little ones need to have much attention and spend much time looking through books with their grown-ups in order to make a transition to schooling easier. 

The final article in the literature review discusses preschool children and their readiness to school, according to their level of development. Regardless of the fact that the research reflects the essence of preschool development in Malaysia, it is possible to see peculiarities, which prevail in each child regardless of their homeland. The article includes the estimation of statistical data and reveals the following facts. First, the majority of preschool children showed a perfect readiness to the first year of schooling due to the activity of teachers trying to prepare them as much as possible. The next reason is that parents were also active enough to make the kids’ abilities applicable during the first year of schooling. Children who had a chance to spend more time with their adults learning new things about the world, managed to have the same level of readiness for school. In general, the article sums up the facts that the contemporary kids have enough opportunities for a rapid development and integration in the educational sphere. Moreover, a flexible accommodation provides them with a chance to achieve academic success and find their interest in the scientific sphere.

The current literature review is a representation of five articles, which characterize each stage of the child’s development. It is possible to extend the research and continue the evaluation of the period from infancy to preschool years. It will help to see the essence of other factors of the kid’s behavioral patterns. In general, the current literature review is effective in terms of its application in psychological aspects.

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Aug 28, 2019 in Management
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